Secure boot

For secure devices it is security critical to enforce firmware authenticity to protect against execution of malicious software. This is implemented by building a trust chain where each step in the execution chain authenticates the next step before execution. The chain of trust is based on a “Root of Trust” which is implemented using asymmetric cryptography. The Root of Trust is a combination of an immutable bootloader and a public key (ROTPK).

Warning

In order to implement a proper chain of trust functionality, it is mandatory that the first stage bootloader and ROTPK is stored in an immutable way. To achieve this the bootloader code must be stored and executed from ROM or such part of flash memory which supports write protection. ROTPK can be stored in a one-time-programmable (OTP) memory. If the SoC has a built-in BL1 (immutable) bootloader and the immutability of TF-M secure boot code is not guaranteed then TF-M secure boot code must be authenticated by BL1 bootloader before execution. If immutability of root of trust (first stage bootloader + ROTPK) is not ensured then there is a risk that the secure boot process could be bypassed, which could lead to arbitrary code execution on the device. Current TF-M secure boot code is intended to be a second stage bootloader, therefore it requires authentication before execution. If TF-M secure boot code is used as a first stage bootloader then it must be stored according to the above requirements.

Second stage bootloader in TF-M

By default, the MCUboot project from GitHub is used as the secure bootloader in TF-M. The repository is going to be automatically downloaded by CMake. The version downloaded can be controlled by the MCUBOOT_VERSION CMake variable. If you wish to use a locally downloaded copy, the CMake variable MCUBOOT_PATH can be set to its location. This document contains information about how MCUboot has been integrated to TF-M. For further information about MCUboot design please refer to the MCUBoot homepage.

Bootloader is started when CPU is released from reset. It runs in secure mode. It authenticates the firmware image by hash (SHA-256) and digital signature (RSA-3072) validation. Public key, that the checks happens against, can be built into the bootloader image or can be provisioned to the SoC during manufacturing. Metadata of the image is delivered together with the image itself in a header and trailer section. In case of successful authentication, bootloader passes execution to the secure image. Execution never returns to bootloader until next reset.

A default RSA key pair is stored in the repository, public key is in keys.c and private key is in root-RSA-3072.pem.

Danger

DO NOT use the default keys in a production code, they are exclusively for testing!

The private key must be stored in a safe place outside of the repository. imgtool.py (found in the scripts directory in the MCUBoot repository, or installed through the pip package manager) can be used to generate new key pairs.

The bootloader can handle the secure and non-secure images independently (multiple image boot) or together (single image boot). In case of multiple image boot they are signed independently with different keys and they can be updated separately. In case of single image boot the secure and non-secure image is handled as a single blob, therefore they must be contiguous in the device memory. In this case they are signed together and also they can be updated only together. In order to have the same artefacts at the end of the build regardless of how the images are handled (independently or together) the images are always concatenated. In case of single image boot they are concatenated first and then signed. In case of multiple image boot they are separately signed first and then concatenated. Preparation of payload is done by Python scripts: bl2/ext/mcuboot/scripts/. At the end of a successful build the signed TF-M payload can be found in: <build_dir>/bin/tfm_s_ns_signed.bin

Integration with TF-M

MCUBoot assumes a predefined memory layout which is described below (applicable for AN521). It is mandatory to define the primary slot and the secondary slot partitions, but their size and location can be changed:

- 0x0000_0000 - 0x0007_FFFF:    BL2 bootloader - MCUBoot
- 0x0008_0000 - 0x000F_FFFF:    Primary slot : Single binary blob:
                                Secure + Non-Secure image;
                                Primary memory partition
  - 0x0008_0000 - 0x0008_03FF:  Common image header
  - 0x0008_0400 - 0x0008_xxxx:  Secure image
  - 0x0008_xxxx - 0x0010_03FF:  Padding (with 0xFF)
  - 0x0010_0400 - 0x0010_xxxx:  Non-secure image
  - 0x0010_xxxx - 0x0010_xxxx:  Hash value(SHA256), RSA signature and other
                                metadata of combined image

- 0x0018_0000 - 0x0027_FFFF:    Secondary slot : Secure + Non-Secure image;
                                Secondary memory partition, structured
                                identically to the primary slot
- 0x0028_0000 - 0x0037_FFFF:    Scratch area, only used during image
                                swapping

Multiple image boot requires a slightly different layout:

- 0x0000_0000 - 0x0007_FFFF:    BL2 bootloader - MCUBoot
- 0x0008_0000 - 0x000F_FFFF:    Primary slot : Secure image
  - 0x0008_0000 - 0x0008_03FF:  Secure image header
  - 0x0008_0400 - 0x000x_xxxx:  Secure image
  - 0x000x_xxxx - 0x000x_xxxx:  Hash value(SHA256), RSA signature and other
                                metadata of secure image

- 0x0010_0000 - 0x0017_FFFF:    Primary slot : Non-secure image
  - 0x0010_0000 - 0x0010_03FF:  Non-secure image header
  - 0x0010_0400 - 0x001x_xxxx:  Non-secure image
  - 0x001x_xxxx - 0x001x_xxxx:  Hash value(SHA256), RSA signature and other
                                metadata of non-secure image

- 0x0018_0000 - 0x001F_FFFF:    Secondary slot : Secure image
- 0x0020_0000 - 0x0027_FFFF:    Secondary slot : Non-secure image

- 0x0028_0000 - 0x002F_FFFF:    Scratch area, only used during image
                                swapping, used for secure and non-secure
                                image as well

Firmware upgrade operation

MCUBoot handles only the firmware authenticity check after start-up and the firmware switch part of the firmware update process. Downloading the new version of the firmware is out-of-scope for MCUBoot. MCUBoot supports three different ways to switch to the new firmware and it is assumed that firmware images are executed-in-place (XIP). The default behaviour is the overwrite-based image upgrade. In this case the active firmware is always executed from the primary slot and the secondary slot is a staging area for new images. Before executing the new firmware image, the content of the primary slot must be overwritten with the content of the secondary slot (the new firmware image). The second option is the image swapping strategy when the content of the two memory slots must be physically swapped. This needs the scratch area to be defined in the memory layout. The third option is the direct execute-in-place version, which eliminates the complexity of image swapping and its administration. Active image can be executed from either memory slot, but new firmware must be linked to the address space of the proper (currently inactive) memory slot.

Overwrite operation

Active image is stored in the primary slot, and this image is started always by the bootloader. Therefore images must be linked to the primary slot. If the bootloader finds a valid image in the secondary slot, which is marked for upgrade, then the content of the primary slot will be simply overwritten with the content of the secondary slot, before starting the new image from the primary slot. After the content of the primary slot has been successfully overwritten, the header and trailer of the new image in the secondary slot is erased to prevent the triggering of another unnecessary image upgrade after a restart. The overwrite operation is fail-safe and resistant to power-cut failures. For more details please refer to the MCUBoot documentation.

Swapping operation

This operation can be set with the MCUBOOT_UPGRADE_STRATEGY compile time switch (see Build time configuration). With swapping image upgrade strategy the active image is also stored in the primary slot and it will always be started by the bootloader. If the bootloader finds a valid image in the secondary slot, which is marked for upgrade, then contents of the primary slot and the secondary slot will be swapped, before starting the new image from the primary slot. Scratch area is used as a temporary storage place during image swapping. Update mark from the secondary slot is removed when the swapping is successful. The boot loader can revert the swapping as a fall-back mechanism to recover the previous working firmware version after a faulty update. The swap operation is fail-safe and resistant to power-cut failures. For more details please refer to the MCUBoot documentation.

Note

After a successful image upgrade, user can mark the image as “OK” at runtime by explicitly calling psa_fwu_accept. When this happens, the swap is made “permanent” and MCUBoot will then still choose to run it during the next boot.

TF-M does not set the image_ok flag, because it is user’s duty to determine whether the image is acceptable. Therefore the bootloader will always perform a “revert” (swap the images back) during the next boot.

Direct execute-in-place operation

This operation can be set with the MCUBOOT_UPGRADE_STRATEGY compile time switch (see Build time configuration). When enabling direct-xip operation then the active image flag is moved between slots during firmware upgrade. If firmware is executed-in-place (XIP), then two firmware images must be generated. One of them is linked to be executed from the primary slot memory region and the other from the secondary slot. The firmware upgrade client, which downloads the new image, must be aware, which slot hosts the active firmware and which acts as a staging area and it is responsible for downloading the proper firmware image. At boot time MCUBoot inspects the version number in the image header and passes execution to the newer firmware version. New image must be marked for upgrade which is automatically done by Python scripts at compile time. Image verification is done the same way in all operational modes. If new image fails during authentication then MCUBoot erases the memory slot and starts the other image, after successful authentication.

To select which slot the image is to be executed from, set MCUBOOT_EXECUTION_SLOT to the desired index. It is suggested that you create two build directories when building images using this mode, as intermediate dependencies cannot be reused due to changes in the flash layout.

Note

Only single image boot is supported with direct-xip upgrade mode.

RAM Loading firmware upgrade

Musca-S supports an image upgrade mode that is separate to the other (overwrite, swapping and dirext-xip) modes. This is the RAM load mode (please refer to the table below). Like the direct-xip mode, this selects the newest image by reading the image version numbers in the image headers, but instead of executing it in place, the newest image is copied to RAM for execution. The load address, the location in RAM where the image is copied to, is stored in the image header.

Summary of different modes for image upgrade

Different implementations of the image upgrade operation (whether through overwriting, swapping, direct-xip or loading into RAM and executing from there) are supported by the platforms. The table below shows which of these modes are supported by which platforms:

Without BL2 1

With BL2 2

XIP

XIP

XIP

XIP

Not XIP

Overwrite 3

Swap 4

direct-xip 5

RAM load 6

AN521

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

AN519

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

FVP_SSE300_MPS3

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Corstone-310 FVP

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

LPC55S69

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

No

Musca-B1

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Musca-S1

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

AN524

Yes

No

No

Yes

No

AN547

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

AN552

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

PSoC64

Yes

No

No

No

No

STM_DISCO_L562QE

No

Yes

No

No

No

STM_NUCLEO_L552ZE_Q

No

Yes

No

No

No

nRF9160 DK

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

nRF5340 DK

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

BL5340 DVK

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

RSE

No

No

No

No

Yes

1

To disable BL2, please set the BL2 cmake option to OFF

2

BL2 is enabled by default

3

The image executes in-place (XIP) and is in Overwrite mode for image update by default

4

To enable XIP Swap mode, assign the “SWAP_USING_SCRATCH” or “SWAP_USING_MOVE” string to the MCUBOOT_UPGRADE_STRATEGY configuration variable in the build configuration file, or include this macro definition in the command line

5

To enable direct-xip, assign the “DIRECT_XIP” string to the MCUBOOT_UPGRADE_STRATEGY configuration variable in the build configuration file, or include this macro definition in the command line

6

To enable RAM load, assign the “RAM_LOAD” string to the MCUBOOT_UPGRADE_STRATEGY configuration variable in the build configuration file, or include this macro definition in the command line

Multiple image boot

It is possible to update the firmware images independently to support the scenario when secure and non-secure images are provided by different vendors. Multiple image boot is supported only together with the overwrite and swap firmware upgrade modes.

It is possible to describe the dependencies of the images on each other in order to avoid a faulty upgrade when incompatible versions would be installed. These dependencies are part of the image manifest area. The dependencies are composed from two parts:

  • Image identifier: The number of the image which the current image (whose manifest area contains the dependency entry) depends on. The image identifier starts from 0.

  • Minimum version: The minimum version of other image must be present on the device by the end of the upgrade (both images might be updated at the same time).

Dependencies can be added to the images at compile time with the following compile time switches:

  • MCUBOOT_S_IMAGE_MIN_VER It is added to the non-secure image and specifies the minimum required version of the secure image.

  • MCUBOOT_NS_IMAGE_MIN_VER It is added to the secure image and specifies the minimum required version of the non-secure image.

Example of how to provide the secure image minimum version:

cmake -DTFM_PLATFORM=arm/musca_b1 -DMCUBOOT_S_IMAGE_MIN_VER=1.2.3+4 ..

Signature algorithms

MbedTLS library is used to sign the images. The list of supported signing algorithms:

  • RSA-2048

  • RSA-3072: default

Example keys stored in:

  • root-RSA-2048.pem : Used to sign single image (S+NS) or secure image in case of multiple image boot

  • root-RSA-2048_1.pem : Used to sign non-secure image in case of multiple image boot

  • root-RSA-3072.pem : Used to sign single image (S+NS) or secure image in case of multiple image boot

  • root-RSA-3072_1.pem : Used to sign non-secure image in case of multiple image boot

Build time configuration

MCUBoot related compile time switches can be set by cmake variables.

  • BL2 (default: True):
    • True: TF-M built together with bootloader. MCUBoot is executed after reset and it authenticates TF-M and starts secure code.

    • False: TF-M built without bootloader. Secure image linked to the beginning of the device memory and executed after reset. If it is false then using any of the further compile time switches is invalid.

  • MCUBOOT_UPGRADE_STRATEGY (default: “OVERWRITE_ONLY”):
    • “OVERWRITE_ONLY”: Default firmware upgrade operation with overwrite.

    • “SWAP_USING_SCRATCH”: Activate swapping firmware upgrade operation with a scratch area in flash

    • “SWAP_USING_MOVE”: Activate swapping firmware upgrade operation without a scratch area in flash

    • “DIRECT_XIP”: Activate direct execute-in-place firmware upgrade operation.

    • “RAM_LOAD”: Activate RAM loading firmware upgrade operation, where the latest image is copied to RAM and runs from there instead of being executed in-place.

  • MCUBOOT_SIGNATURE_TYPE (default: RSA-3072):
    • RSA-2048: Image is signed with RSA algorithm and signed with 2048 bit key.

    • RSA-3072: Image is signed with RSA algorithm and signed with 3072 bit key.

    • EC-P256: Image is signed with ECDSA P-256 algorithm.

    • EC-P384: Image is signed with ECDSA P-384 algorithm.

  • MCUBOOT_IMAGE_NUMBER (default: 2):
    • 1: Single image boot, secure and non-secure images are signed and updated together.

    • 2: Multiple image boot, secure and non-secure images are signed and updatable independently.

  • MCUBOOT_HW_KEY (default: True):
    • True: The hash of public key is provisioned to the SoC and the image manifest contains the whole public key (imgtool uses --public_key_format=full). MCUBoot validates the key before using it for firmware authentication, it calculates the hash of public key from the manifest and compare against the retrieved key-hash from the hardware. This way MCUBoot is independent from the public key(s). Key(s) can be provisioned any time and by different parties.

    • False: The whole public key is embedded to the bootloader code and the image manifest contains only the hash of the public key (imgtool uses --public_key_format=hash). MCUBoot validates the key before using it for firmware authentication, it calculates the hash of built-in public key and compare against the retrieved key-hash from the image manifest. After this the bootloader can verify that the image was signed with a private key that corresponds to the retrieved key-hash (it can have more public keys embedded in and it may have to look for the matching one). All the public key(s) must be known at MCUBoot build time.

  • MCUBOOT_LOG_LEVEL:

    Can be used to configure the level of logging in MCUBoot. The possible values are the following:

    • OFF

    • ERROR

    • WARNING

    • INFO

    • DEBUG

    The logging in MCUBoot can be disabled and thus the code size can be reduced by setting it to OFF. Its value depends on the build type. If the build type is Debug then default value is INFO. In case of different kinds of Release builds the default value is OFF. The default value can be overridden through the command line or in the CMake GUI regardless of the build type.

  • MCUBOOT_ENC_IMAGES (default: False):
    • True: Adds encrypted image support in the source and encrypts the resulting image using the enc-rsa2048-pub.pem key found in the MCUBoot repository.

    • False: Doesn’t add encrypted image support and doesn’t encrypt the image.

    Note

    The decryption takes place during the upgrade process, when the images are being moved between the slots. This means that boards that don’t already have an image on them with MCUBoot that has been compiled with MCUBOOT_ENCRYPT_RSA enabled need special treatment. In order to load an encrypted image to such boards, an upgrade needs to be executed. This can be done by using MCUBoot, putting an image in the secondary image area, and setting MCUBOOT_ENCRYPT_RSA to ON. When using the OVERWRITE_ONLY upgrade strategy, this is enough. When using SWAP_USING_SCRATCH or SWAP_USING_MOVE, an image is needed in the primary image area as well, to trigger the update.

    Danger

    DO NOT use the enc-rsa2048-pub.pem key in production code, it is exclusively for testing!

Image versioning

An image version number is written to its header by one of the Python scripts, and this number is used by the bootloader when the direct execute-in-place or the RAM loading mode is enabled. It is also used in case of multiple image boot when the bootloader checks the image dependencies if any have been added to the images.

The version number of the image (single image boot) can manually be passed in through the command line in the cmake configuration step:

cmake -DTFM_PLATFORM=arm/musca_b1 -DIMAGE_VERSION_S=1.2.3+4 ..

Alternatively, the version number can be less specific (e.g 1, 1.2, or 1.2.3), where the missing numbers are automatically set to zero. The image version number argument is optional, and if it is left out, then the version numbers of the image(s) being built in the same directory will automatically change. In this case, the last component (the build number) automatically increments from the previous one: 0.0.0+1 -> 0.0.0+2, for as many times as the build is re-ran, until a number is explicitly provided. If automatic versioning is in place and then an image version number is provided for the first time, the new number will take precedence and be used instead. All subsequent image versions are then set to the last number that has been specified, and the build number would stop incrementing. Any new version numbers that are provided will overwrite the previous one: 0.0.0+1 -> 0.0.0+2. Note: To re-apply automatic image versioning, please start a clean build without specifying the image version number at all. In case of multiple image boot there are separate compile time switches for both images to provide their version: IMAGE_VERSION_S and IMAGE_VERSION_NS. These must be used instead of IMAGE_VERSION_S.

Security counter

Each signed image contains a security counter in its manifest. It is used by the bootloader and its aim is to have an independent (from the image version) counter to ensure rollback protection by comparing the new image’s security counter against the original (currently active) image’s security counter during the image upgrade process. It is added to the manifest (to the TLV area that is appended to the end of the image) by one of the Python scripts when signing the image. The value of the security counter is security critical data and it is in the integrity protected part of the image. The last valid security counter should always be stored in a non-volatile and trusted component of the device and its value should always be increased if a security flaw was fixed in the current image version. The value of the security counter (single image boot) can be specified at build time in the cmake configuration step:

cmake -DTFM_PLATFORM=arm/musca_b1 -DSECURITY_COUNTER_S=42 ../

The security counter can be independent from the image version, but not necessarily. Alternatively, if it is not specified at build time with the SECURITY_COUNTER option the Python script will automatically generate it from the image version number (not including the build number) and this value will be added to the signed image. In case of multiple image boot there are separate compile time switches for both images to provide their security counter value: SECURITY_COUNTER_S and SECURITY_COUNTER_NS. These must be used instead of SECURITY_COUNTER_S. If these are not defined then the security counter values will be derived from the corresponding image version similar to the single image boot.

Signing the images manually

Normally the build system handles the signing (computing hash over the image and security critical manifest data and then signing the hash) of the firmware images. However, the images also can be signed manually by using the imgtool Python program which is located in the MCUboot repository in the scripts folder or can be installed with the pip package manager. Issue the python3 imgtool.py sign --help command in the directory for more information about the mandatory and optional arguments. The tool takes an image in binary or Intel Hex format and adds a header and trailer that MCUBoot is expecting. In case of single image boot after a successful build the tfm_s_ns.bin build artifact (contains the concatenated secure and non-secure images) must be passed to the script and in case of multiple image boot the tfm_s.bin and tfm_ns.bin binaries can be passed to prepare the signed images.

Signing the secure image manually in case of multiple image boot

python3 bl2/ext/mcuboot/scripts/imgtool.py sign \
    --layout <build_dir>/bl2/ext/mcuboot/CMakeFiles/signing_layout_s.dir/signing_layout_s.c.obj \
    -k <tfm_dir>/bl2/ext/mcuboot/root-RSA-3072.pem \
    --public-key-format full \
    --align 1 \
    -v 1.2.3+4 \
    -d "(1,1.2.3+0)" \
    -s 42 \
    -H 0x400 \
    <build_dir>/bin/tfm_s.bin \
    <build_dir>/bin/tfm_s_signed.bin

Testing firmware upgrade

As downloading the new firmware image is out of scope for MCUBoot, the update process is started from a state where the original and the new image are already programmed to the appropriate memory slots. To generate the original and a new firmware package, TF-M is built twice with different build configurations.

Overwriting firmware upgrade

Run TF-M build twice with MCUBOOT_IMAGE_NUMBER set to “1” in both cases (single image boot), but with two different build configurations: default and regression. Save the artifacts between builds, because second run can overwrite original binaries. Download default build to the primary slot and regression build to the secondary slot.

Executing firmware upgrade on FVP_MPS2_AEMv8M

<ARM_DS_PATH>/sw/models/bin/FVP_MPS2_AEMv8M  \
--parameter fvp_mps2.platform_type=2 \
--parameter cpu0.baseline=0 \
--parameter cpu0.INITVTOR_S=0x10000000 \
--parameter cpu0.semihosting-enable=0 \
--parameter fvp_mps2.DISABLE_GATING=0 \
--parameter fvp_mps2.telnetterminal0.start_telnet=1 \
--parameter fvp_mps2.telnetterminal1.start_telnet=0 \
--parameter fvp_mps2.telnetterminal2.start_telnet=0 \
--parameter fvp_mps2.telnetterminal0.quiet=0 \
--parameter fvp_mps2.telnetterminal1.quiet=1 \
--parameter fvp_mps2.telnetterminal2.quiet=1 \
--application cpu0=<build_dir>/bin/bl2.axf \
--data cpu0=<default_build_dir>/bin/tfm_s_ns_signed.bin@0x10080000 \
--data cpu0=<regresssion_build_dir>/bin/tfm_s_ns_signed.bin@0x10180000

Executing firmware upgrade on SSE 200 FPGA on MPS2 board

TITLE: Versatile Express Images Configuration File
[IMAGES]
TOTALIMAGES: 3                     ;Number of Images (Max: 32)
IMAGE0ADDRESS: 0x00000000
IMAGE0FILE: \Software\bl2.axf      ; BL2 bootloader
IMAGE1ADDRESS: 0x10080000
IMAGE1FILE: \Software\tfm_sig1.bin ; TF-M default test binary blob
IMAGE2ADDRESS: 0x10180000
IMAGE2FILE: \Software\tfm_sig2.bin ; TF-M regression test binary blob

The following message will be shown in case of successful firmware upgrade:

[INF] Starting bootloader
[INF] Swap type: test
[INF] Image upgrade secondary slot -> primary slot
[INF] Erasing the primary slot
[INF] Copying the secondary slot to the primary slot: 0x100000 bytes
[INF] Bootloader chainload address offset: 0x80000
[INF] Jumping to the first image slot
[Sec Thread] Secure image initializing!

#### Execute test suites for the Secure area ####
Running Test Suite PSA protected storage S interface tests (TFM_PS_TEST_2XXX)...
...

To update the secure and non-secure images separately (multiple image boot), set the MCUBOOT_IMAGE_NUMBER switch to “2” (this is the default configuration value) and follow the same instructions as in case of single image boot.

Executing multiple firmware upgrades on SSE 200 FPGA on MPS2 board

TITLE: Versatile Express Images Configuration File
[IMAGES]
TOTALIMAGES: 4                     ;Number of Images (Max: 32)
IMAGE0ADDRESS: 0x00000000
IMAGE0FILE: \Software\bl2.axf      ; BL2 bootloader
IMAGE1ADDRESS: 0x10080000
IMAGE1FILE: \Software\tfm_sign.bin ; TF-M default test binary blob
IMAGE2ADDRESS: 0x10180000
IMAGE2FILE: \Software\tfm_ss1.bin  ; TF-M regression test secure (signed) image
IMAGE3ADDRESS: 0x10200000
IMAGE3FILE: \Software\tfm_nss1.bin ; TF-M regression test non-secure (signed) image

Note that both the concatenated binary blob (the images are signed separately and then concatenated) and the separate signed images can be downloaded to the device because on this platform (AN521) both the primary slots and the secondary slots are contiguous areas in the Flash (see Integration with TF-M). The following message will be shown in case of successful firmware upgrades:

[INF] Starting bootloader
[INF] Swap type: test
[INF] Swap type: test
[INF] Image upgrade secondary slot -> primary slot
[INF] Erasing the primary slot
[INF] Copying the secondary slot to the primary slot: 0x80000 bytes
[INF] Image upgrade secondary slot -> primary slot
[INF] Erasing the primary slot
[INF] Copying the secondary slot to the primary slot: 0x80000 bytes
[INF] Bootloader chainload address offset: 0x80000
[INF] Jumping to the first image slot
[Sec Thread] Secure image initializing!
TFM level is: 1
[Sec Thread] Jumping to non-secure code...

#### Execute test suites for the Secure area ####
Running Test Suite PSA protected storage S interface tests (TFM_PS_TEST_2XXX)...
...

Swapping firmware upgrade

Follow the same instructions and platform related configurations as in case of overwriting build including these changes:

  • Set the MCUBOOT_UPGRADE_STRATEGY compile time switch to “SWAP” before build.

  • Set the MCUBOOT_IMAGE_NUMBER compile time switch to “1” (single image boot) or “2” (multiple image boot) before build.

During single image boot the following message will be shown in case of successful firmware upgrade, Swap type: test indicates that images were swapped:

[INF] Starting bootloader
[INF] Image 0: magic= good, copy_done=0x3, image_ok=0x3
[INF] Scratch: magic=  bad, copy_done=0x0, image_ok=0x2
[INF] Boot source: primary slot
[INF] Swap type: test
[INF] Bootloader chainload address offset: 0x80000
[INF] Jumping to the first image slot
[Sec Thread] Secure image initializing!

#### Execute test suites for the Secure area ####
Running Test Suite PSA protected storage S interface tests (TFM_PS_TEST_2XXX)...
...

Direct execute-in-place firmware upgrade

Follow the same instructions and platform related configurations as in case of overwriting build including these changes:

  • Set the MCUBOOT_UPGRADE_STRATEGY compile time switch to “DIRECT_XIP” before build.

  • set MCUBOOT_EXECUTION_SLOT to 1 in the regression build dir.

  • Make sure the image version number was increased between the two build runs either by specifying it manually or by checking in the build log that it was incremented automatically.

Executing firmware upgrade on FVP_MPS2_AEMv8M

<ARM_DS_PATH>/sw/models/bin/FVP_MPS2_AEMv8M  \
--parameter fvp_mps2.platform_type=2 \
--parameter cpu0.baseline=0 \
--parameter cpu0.INITVTOR_S=0x10000000 \
--parameter cpu0.semihosting-enable=0 \
--parameter fvp_mps2.DISABLE_GATING=0 \
--parameter fvp_mps2.telnetterminal0.start_telnet=1 \
--parameter fvp_mps2.telnetterminal1.start_telnet=0 \
--parameter fvp_mps2.telnetterminal2.start_telnet=0 \
--parameter fvp_mps2.telnetterminal0.quiet=0 \
--parameter fvp_mps2.telnetterminal1.quiet=1 \
--parameter fvp_mps2.telnetterminal2.quiet=1 \
--application cpu0=<build_dir>/bin/bl2.axf \
--data cpu0=<default_build_dir>/bin/tfm_s_ns_signed.bin@0x10080000 \
--data cpu0=<regresssion_build_dir>/bin/tfm_s_ns_signed.bin@0x10180000

Executing firmware upgrade on SSE 200 FPGA on MPS2 board

TITLE: Versatile Express Images Configuration File
[IMAGES]
TOTALIMAGES: 3                     ;Number of Images (Max: 32)
IMAGE0ADDRESS: 0x00000000
IMAGE0FILE: \Software\bl2.axf      ; BL2 bootloader
IMAGE1ADDRESS: 0x10080000
IMAGE1FILE: \Software\tfm_sign.bin ; TF-M default test binary blob
IMAGE2ADDRESS: 0x10180000
IMAGE2FILE: \Software\tfm_sig1.bin ; TF-M regression test binary blob

Executing firmware upgrade on Musca-B1 and Musca-S1 boards

After the two images have been built, they can be concatenated to create the combined image using srec_cat:

  • Linux:

    srec_cat bin/bl2.bin -Binary -offset 0xA000000 tfm_sign.bin -Binary -offset 0xA020000 tfm_sign_1.bin -Binary -offset 0xA100000 -o tfm.hex -Intel
    
  • Windows:

    srec_cat.exe bin\bl2.bin -Binary -offset 0xA000000 tfm_sign.bin -Binary -offset 0xA020000 tfm_sign_1.bin -Binary -offset 0xA100000 -o tfm.hex -Intel
    

The following message will be shown in case of successful firmware upgrade, notice that image with higher version number (version=1.2.3.5) is executed:

[INF] Starting bootloader
[INF] Image 0: version=1.2.3.4, magic= good, image_ok=0x3
[INF] Image 1: version=1.2.3.5, magic= good, image_ok=0x3
[INF] Booting image from the secondary slot
[INF] Bootloader chainload address offset: 0xa0000
[INF] Jumping to the first image slot
[Sec Thread] Secure image initializing!

#### Execute test suites for the Secure area ####
Running Test Suite PSA protected storage S interface tests (TFM_PS_TEST_2XXX)...
...

RAM loading firmware upgrade

To enable RAM loading, please set MCUBOOT_UPGRADE_STRATEGY to “RAM_LOAD” (either in the configuration file or through the command line), and then specify a destination load address in RAM where the image can be copied to and executed from. The S_IMAGE_LOAD_ADDRESS macro must be specified in the target dependent files, and if multiple image boot is enabled then NS_IMAGE_LOAD_ADDRESS must also be defined. For example with Musca-S, its flash_layout.h file in the platform folder should include #define S_IMAGE_LOAD_ADDRESS #0xA0020000

Executing firmware upgrade on Musca-S board

After two images have been built, they can be concatenated to create the combined image using srec_cat:

  • Linux:

    srec_cat bin/bl2.bin -Binary -offset 0xA000000 tfm_sign_old.bin -Binary -offset 0xA020000 tfm_sign_new.bin -Binary -offset 0xA100000 -o tfm.hex -Intel
    
  • Windows:

    srec_cat.exe bin\bl2.bin -Binary -offset 0xA000000 tfm_sign_old.bin -Binary -offset 0xA020000 tfm_sign_new.bin -Binary -offset 0xA100000 -o tfm.hex -Intel
    

The following message will be shown in case of successful firmware upgrade when, RAM loading is enabled, notice that image with higher version number (version=0.0.0.2) is executed:

[INF] Starting bootloader
[INF] Image 0: version=0.0.0.1, magic= good, image_ok=0x3
[INF] Image 1: version=0.0.0.2, magic= good, image_ok=0x3
[INF] Image has been copied from the secondary slot in flash to SRAM address 0xA0020000
[INF] Booting image from SRAM at address 0xA0020000
[INF] Bootloader chainload address offset: 0x20000
[INF] Jumping to the first image slot
[Sec Thread] Secure image initializing!

Integration with Firmware Update service

The shim layer of the Firmware Update partition calls the APIs in bootutil_misc.c to control the image status.

  • Call boot_set_pending_multi() to make the image as a candidate image for booting.

  • Call boot_set_confirmed_multi() to make the image as a permanent image.

Note

Currently, in direct-xip mode and ram-load mode, TF-M cannot get the information of which slot contains the running image from the bootloader. So the Firmware Update partition cannot decide where to write the new image. As a result, the firmware update service is not supported in direct-xip mode and ram-load mode.

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